This week we have a guest blog from Dr. Roland Snijder, Medical Physicist Resident at Haaglanden Medisch Centrum (NL). To obtain his PhD degree at the Utrecht University, Roland worked as a researcher on the multi-infusion project at the department of Medical Technology & Clinical Physics of University Medical Center Utrecht (UMC Utrecht). His research focused on investigating physical causes of dosing errors in multi-infusion systems. In this research flow characteristics of multi-infusion setups were investigated using Bronkhorst Coriolis flow meters. In this blog Roland explains more about his research.
What is infusion?
Most patients admitted to the hospital are treated with medication (pharmaceuticals). Especially in critical care, a substantial amount of patients require intravenous therapy. Intravenous therapy means that a solution of pharmaceuticals are administered directly into the veins. The process of administering pharmaceuticals directly into the veins is called infusion and is done using a vascular access device (e.g. a catheter), which is inserted into the vein.
The importance of an accurate flow
Often patients in critical care, most notably young and premature patients, suffer from conditions that require the intravenous administration of very potent and short acting pharmaceuticals. These pharmaceuticals typically require a very accurate administration where deviations in flow- and thus dosing-rate can easily result in dosing errors. For this reason, infusion or syringe pumps are used.
On top of this, vascular access to the patient is typically limited and therefore many infusion pumps have to co-administer through one catheter (multi-infusion), making the entire pharmaceutical delivery process complex and hard to predict.
Because dosing errors are common in clinical practice, it was clear that more research was required. Many of the results of this research can be found in the PhD-thesis: “Physical Causes of Dosing Errors in Patients Receiving Multi-Infusion Therapy”.
Fig 1. Example of a multi-infusion setup in clinical practice.
Flow measurement with Coriolis flow meter
We conducted a large amount of measurements to learn more about the flow characteristics of multi-infusion setups. These measurements were conducted using Bronkhorst Coriolis flow meters (series mini CORI-FLOW. These flow meters allowed us to measure the flow rate of infusion pumps very accurately, precisely and independent of the density of the solution being measured (although most of the solutions were similar to water).
The flow meters were also chosen because of the suitability for very low flow rates, infusion flow rates may be as low as 0.1 ml/h. Ultimately it is, of course, the dose rate or mass flow rate of the pharmaceutical administered to the patient that is important.
To measure this we used an absorption spectrophotometric setup, which enabled us to measure the concentration of a substance in a solution, i.e. a pharmaceutical or pharmaceutical-analogue. To convert density (e.g. µg/l) to a mass flow rate (e.g. µg/h), the cumulative flow rate (e.g. ml/h) of the infusion setup has to be measured as well.
First we used a precision balance for this but later in the research project we used the mini CORI-FLOW flow meter. The data from the precision balance was rather noisy, whereas the flow meter provided very clean data, which improved our measurements substantially.
However, one point of caution that has to considered is that flow meters do produce a pressure drop resulting in intrinsic flow resistance. The implications of this and how the measurement setup relates to a clinical situation is thoroughly explained in the PhD-thesis.
The research concluded that a wide variety of infusion components all had a particular, usually significant influence and, importantly, medical personnel is usually not aware of the implications this has for infusion therapy. Awareness of the underlying mechanisms of these effects through education and technical innovation were recommended. The Coriolis flow meters from Bronkhorst proved to be very suitable for gaining insight in the different mechanisms of infusion pump system failure.
Further reading: R.A. Snijder - Physical causes of dosing errors in patients receiving multi-infusion therapy (ISBN: 978-94-028-0382-2)
About the author:
Dr. R. A. (Roland) Snijder (1985) is Medical Physicist Resident at Haaglanden Medisch Centrum (NL). He obtained a master’s degree in Biomedical Engineering at the University of Groningen with a specialization curriculum in the area of medical physics (medical instrumentation and imaging). In his master thesis, conducted at the University Medical Center Groningen, he investigated the effects of using computed tomography (CT) for lung cancer screening. After finishing his master thesis in 2012, Roland went on to pursue a PhD degree at the department of Medical Technology and Clinical Physics of University Medical Center Utrecht (UMC Utrecht).
Dr. Roland Snijder (HMC)
Want to learn more about calibration of infusion pumps? Read the blog of Marcel Katerberg, explaining the calibration techniques to improve infusion pump performance.
A direct translation of the word ‘accreditation’ is providing trust. To measure this form of trust, standards are made to measure the expertise, impartiality and the level of continuous improvement of an organization. Laboratories that are accredited to the international standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 have demonstrated that they are technically competent and able to produce precise and accurate test and/or calibration data.
Why are precise and accurate measurements important? For an example: If you pay the bill at the fuel station you trust that the amount you have to pay is an accurate equivalent of the amount of fuel which you filled-up. The same counts for many additional processes in which measurement equipment are used to secure the outcome of your process. An ISO/IEC 17025:2005 test certificate is the highest international level of calibration security which can be provided for measurement equipment. Bronkhorst is a proud owner of an accredited in-house ISO/IEC 17025:2005 Calibration Centre (BCC).
In this week’s blog I would like to take you with me to get a glance at our Bronkhorst Calibration Centre (BCC). This has been accredited since 2010 for gas, pressure and liquid flow calibration services.
For this, I followed Mandy Westhoff, one of our calibration centre operators, during her daily routines to get a realistic view on the activities of the calibration centre.
Why do flow meters have to be calibrated?
In general, all flow meters will be calibrated as a final step in production. The instrument with certain parameters will be compared with a fixed reference in certain environmental conditions, to provide real flow measurements.
Measuring equipment is used to secure the outcome of a process, process owners have to be able to rely on these measurements where high accuracy and – more and more – traceability play an important role, for example in the Pharmaceutical market. It is a way of risk management.
Throughout the years, we have noticed a distinctive increase in ISO/IEC17025:2005 calibrations in our calibration centre. An ISO/IEC 17025 calibration is often required as this is the highest level of calibration available in the market.
What kind of calibrations can be done in the calibration centre?
The Bronkhorst Calibration Centre is an independent department within the Bronkhorst organization and therefore not subjected to any commercial influences whatsoever.
It can be said that the tasks of the calibration centre are twofold:
- The BCC acts as an in-house lab which maintains all calibration standards used within the Bronkhorst organisation.
- The BCC acts as an external calibration lab which performs ISO/IEC 17025:2005 calibrations for anyone who wants this certification on their instruments, for both Bronkhorst instruments and other brands. Moreover, the BCC can perform adjustments on new and existing flow meters and controllers and calibration devices.
The Bronkhorst Calibration Centre, an external calibration lab
The scope of the calibration centre includes calibration of gas flow, liquid flow and pressure.
About 60-70% of the performed ISO/IEC 17025:2005 calibrations are ‘as found’ calibrations on used instruments. Many of our customers, especially in the Pharmaceutical market, Universities and Automotive industry, will send their instruments once a year for calibration. So they have a reliable instrument calibrated according to the highest level of calibration security which they can use as a reference for their own calibrations on-site.
To offer the highest standard of precise and accurate test and/or calibration data the environment of the laboratory is fully controlled. The calibration will be executed in a high-tech lab under conditioned circumstances by 21°C ± 2°C and a humidity of 50 ± 20%, which is outstanding. Even sunlight through the windows has been avoided and movement of people has been minimised as much as possible. Non-authorized personnel is not allowed to enter the calibration centre.
Can you explain the calibration process in the calibration centre?
After the acclimatisation process and setup, the operator will conduct a leakage test using the Flowbus Piston Prover (FPP). This test will be done prior to every calibration as a security check to maintain the high level of quality assurance.
After approval of the environmental conditions, the calibration starts. A standard calibration is performed on several measurement points. On these measuring points the accuracy of the instrument will be determined.
After a successful calibration the instrument is provided with a label mentioning the date of calibration and certificate number, so all can be traced back to the calibration dossier. The BCC coordinator will check if everything is done by protocol and all ISO/IEC 17025:2005 calibration dossiers will be sent to the BCC Officer to perform a final check.
How about training?
All our calibration operators are trained to perform gas, as well as pressure and liquid calibrations according to the ISO/IEC17025:2005 standard. Furthermore, we are taught how to maintain calibration devices, such as cleaning glass tubes and the chemicals which are used for calibration procedures.
Is it dangerous to do this type of work?
Training is the most important part. All our operators are highly competent and skilled employees. But still, all activities are primarily centered on human work. To keep the risk level as low as possible, everything is monitored closely during the calibration process and all materials used are checked on a regular base.
What makes your job interesting?
You never have a dull moment in this job, every day is different. The service you provide is always different, because it is customer specific. It is a nice idea that you can contribute to a successful customer’s process.
In the food industry there are many applications in which gases or liquids need to be measured or controlled. For example, these applications include the aeration process or the dosage of additives, like flavours and colourants. Indirectly, surface treatment applications like the sterilization of packaging is of high importance as well. Bronkhorst has published many stories regarding the omnifarious and demanding food industry and I would like to share some of these stories with you.
Additive dosing for confectionery industry
There is a huge variation in candy available on the market, each brand with its own taste, texture and appearance. Erwin Broekman had the opportunity to visit Haas-Mondomix, a machine builder that is specialized in equipment for the food industry. With ultrasonic volume flow meters, Haas-Mondomix measures the amount of additives - flavourings, colourings and acids - that are added to the main stream of the production process. Please read the blog to learn more about this application.
In the chocolate confectionery industry, there’s an ever increasing number of variations in flavours as well. Due to this enormous growth, mass flow meters and controllers find their way into the confectionery industry. Coriolis flow meters in combination with a pump are an ideal solution for dosing flavours and functional ingredients. Read more about dosing flavour into chocolate.
Aeration within the production process of delicacies like ice cream and cake
Ice cream is made by freezing and simultaneously blending air into a brewage of fat, sugar and milk solids. Air makes up anywhere from 30% to 50% of the total volume of ice cream, so aeration is crucial during production. A side effect of adding air to ice cream is that it tends to melt more quickly. Thus, for attaining an optimal structure of the ice cream, it’s important to have a stable inlet air flow in the production process with a constant cream/air ratio. This can be achieved by using a mass flow controller. Read the blog about the production of ice cream, and get to know your favourite summer treat.
Aeration is also a crucial process in the production of whipped cream. This is done at Hansa Industrie-Mixer, a worldwide company that operates in the field of mixing machines and foam generators for the food and non-food industry. Hans-Georg Frenzel, technical director at this company, explains how mass flow controllers are important in the production of cake in his blog.
Steralisation of food packaging to reduce food waste
However, all that food production does have a downside; food waste. Globally food is lost or wasted at different points in the supply chain. One of the ways to reduce food waste is to improve the sterilization of the packaging that food is placed in, to reduce spoilage and increase shelf life. This is the point where Controlled Evaporation Mixing (CEM) systems come in the picture. James Walton explains Bronkhorst’s share in the extension of the shelf life.
Hopefully you’ve learned some more about the role of flow meters and controllers in the food industry. Bronkhorst has a wide range of products for this particular industry, as can be seen on the ProSweets this year.
ISM and ProSweets 2019
Bronkhorst is present at ProSweets Cologne, from the 27th of January till the 30th of January in combination with the Internationale Süßwarenmesse ISM. Visit us at the ProSweets 2019, Hall 10.1, Booth A020!
Working as an Industry Specialist for the Food, Pharma and Beverage market at Bronkhorst High-Tech, it’s needless to say I continuously monitor these markets, to find out where we can be a solution provider. One of the trends in the beverage market I have encountered is fast batch dosing of additives. Additive dosing is a typical application in which flow meters can be used. Let me explain where this applies in the beverage industry and why additive batch dosing has to go with high speed.
The trend of small batch production
Traditionally, many industries make large batches of one product (mass production), and the beverage industry is no exception for that matter. However, due to the development of wider product ranges and diversification, which many companies face, this traditional way of production lacks the flexibility and efficiency which is often required these days. Companies optimize their processes, to be more resilient and responsive to risks. Nowadays, the trend is to make batches depending on the actual demand.
There is a demand to be more flexible and cost efficient on many levels. In the beverage industry this involves easier changeover from one flavour product to another by minimum cleaning. To keep the additive dosing system separated from the main product stream (like water), most parts of the filling line will be kept untainted from additives. This will save time, cleaning liquid and therefore costs, when changing product.
The necessity of fast batch dosing
Most types of filling lines produce a high output. This demands an additive dosing system which provides fast batch dosing with high repeatability and accuracy. How can fast batch dosing be achieved properly? Important with fast batch dosing is the right amount of additive in the pre-defined dosing time. This amount is usually very small and the dosing time can sometimes be very demanding. A dosing time from several milliseconds up to a second is not unusual in the beverage industry. To accurately dose small amounts of additives at such speed can be a challenge and requires excellent flow control.
Bronkhorst solutions for fast batch dosing
We can offer several flow solutions to ensure the required accuracy and reproducibility for (fast) batch dosing. One way is by combining a Coriolis mass flow meter with a pump or suitable valve. With this system, fluids can be dosed in a controlled way into the production process.
Another option would be to use an ultrasonic volume flow meter instead. The hygienic designs of our ultrasonic volume flow meters and their capability for cleaning in place - CIP - make these flow meters a good match for the beverage industry.
Figure 1. ES-FLOW Ultrasonic Volume Flow Meter
The advantage of both the Bronkhorst Coriolis flow meter and ultrasonic volume flow meter is that they are equipped with an integrated batch dosing functionality. This dosing technology allows batch dosing of small amounts of liquid additives with only a minimum of tolerance. The firmware is equipped with a “learning function” to correct even the smallest tolerances automatically (e.g. during start-up of the instrument or change of supply batches). The setup is customized to fulfill all requirements of the production; it can be integrated easily in already existing processes and production lines. Moreover, with this batch dosing functionality, quick and complex regulation with PLC or SCADA is not necessary anymore.
Figure 2. Bronkhorst Dosing Technology scheme with mini CORI-FLOW mass flow meters
So whether you choose for Coriolis or Ultrasonic flow technology, our flow instruments can offer the solution for higher throughput, flexible machines, more rapid changeover and less product waste in the beverage industry. If you want to learn more on how Ultrasonic flow technology has proven itself to be a solution for additive dosing in candy manufacturing, please read the story of my colleague Erwin Broekman on how candy gets its own taste, texture and appearance.
Read more about additive dosing.
The Christmas holidays are coming! And just like in everyday life, Bronkhorst products are important for many applications being used during the Christmas season. Whether it’s decorations or dinner, it stands to reason that flow meters have been used in their production. In this blog I will briefly explain different Christmas related flow applications, and how flow measurement and control is involved.
Adding fragrances in candles
Most of us light up a few candles to create a bit of ambiance during Christmas. But besides that extra light you get, they often also have something else to offer. Candles can make a room smell like literally anything. Candle manufacturers work closely with fragrance companies to develop scented formulas that are not only pleasing, but will also burn safely and properly. The addition of fragrance to a candle should be carefully monitored to ensure the candle burns cleanly and safely. For dosing the fragrances in a candle, Bronkhorst CORI-FILL dosing technology would be a very good option to use.
Mass flow control at your Christmas dinner
In most households, Christmas is usually celebrated with a sumptuous dinner. Such a dinner is partly made possible by mass flow meters. These instruments are used for the production of multiple foods and beverages, like:
Bronkhorst instruments are also often used for sealing, coating and sterilisation the packaging of such things as juices or dairy products. Want to learn more about mass flow measurement for the production of foods and beverages? Read all about the different applications in this industry.
Dosing Teflon on baking trays
During Christmas dinner my family and I always enjoy using a table grill. But isn’t it frustrating when food sticks to your grill grates? Luckily, the baking tray of a table grill often has a Teflon coating to prevent food from sticking to it. Here mass flow control comes into the picture. Mass flow meters are used to evenly spray Teflon during the production of baking trays for optimal accuracy and consistency.
Christmas LED lights
Christmas and lighting are inextricably linked, for instance when it comes to the sparkling lights that light up your Christmas tree. All those tiny LED lights sparkling away have been produced with the help of a mass flow meter. After all, the working principle of LED is via a two-lead semiconductor light source. The semiconducting material used in LEDs is basically aluminium-gallium-arsenide (AlGaAs), which is accurately applied with mass flow meters. Different wavelengths involved in the process determine the various colours produced by the LEDs. Hence, light emitted by the device depends on the type of semiconductor material used.
The applications explained in this Christmas story are just a fraction of the possibilities that Bronkhorst instruments have to offer. Flow instruments can be used in numerous applications and industries. To find the right flow meter for your application, please visit https://www.bronkhorst.com/flow-meter/
And finally, I would like to wish you all a very Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!
Natural gas has been an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use worldwide. Recent trends in energy supply have led to changes in the composition of the supplied gas in many countries.
Due to these changes, it becomes even more important to measure the composition of this gas. Especially in small-scale applications a need for in-line measurement technology was detected.
For instance, in the Netherlands in the 1950’s a large natural gas reservoir was discovered near Slochteren which supplied a steady and constant source for many decades. However, production from the Slochteren field is declining and will be stopped in 2030. Therefore, the gas grid has to be fed with gas from different sources.
What natural gas from all sources has in common is that it is composed of methane, usually 75…95%. The rest of the mix typically consists of higher alkanes, like ethane and propane and fractions of nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The exact composition depends on the source of the gas, so when a grid is supplied with a variety of gases the composition will change. Furthermore, other recent trends contribute to the fluctuations in composition.
Trends in gas compositions
Natural gas is very suitable to facilitate in the increasing use of renewable energies.
Biogas produced from renewable energy sources in biogas plants can, after proper treatment, be fed into the grid. However, biogas composition will depend on the feedstock, which is not always constant in time.
- For more information about adsorption processes used for purification of bio- or natural gas, read our blog about Biogas Purification Testing.
Another important trend is power to gas or P2G; here electricity, produced from renewable sources like solar or wind, is used to produce a gas as an energy carrier. This can be hydrogen produced with electrolysis, or synthetic methane by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen produced from electrolysis.
A major factor in renewable energy is the mismatch between supply and demand. As you can imagine solar energy is only being produced during daytime. Transferring electrical energy into chemical energy by producing combustible gases and feeding this in the national grid can help to balance this mismatch by utilizing the large buffer capacity of the available gas networks. Recent research, by for instance Kiwa, has shown that the current gas grid in the Netherlands can handle several tens of percent of hydrogen with limited modifications.
All these factors are leading to increasing changes to the gas composition in the network. Composition and quality are strongly correlated; increasing amounts of inert gases, like nitrogen or carbon dioxide, reduce the amount of energy produced when burned, also known as the calorific value.
The presence of hydrogen in natural gas can change flame characteristics, such as temperature and flame speed.
Measuring the composition
With changing chemical compositions it becomes increasingly important to measure calorific value and components. With only a single point of entry, one measurement sufficed to analyse the composition in the downstream network. In the present day grid, networks are more intertwined and have multiple points where gases are blended. At every point of entry, it is necessary to measure the composition, not only for quality control but also for fiscal purposes. In this way, the suppliers can make sure consumers receive the quality they need and are charged for the heating value of the gas rather than the volume they receive.
The current standard for determining gas quality is gas chromatography; this method is very accurate but also slow and expensive. Alternative methods like calorimetry are similarly expensive and have a large footprint, making it hard to implement in small-scale applications.
All these future trends lead to a need for measurement technology that can be used in-line and in small-scale applications. This requires sensors that are compact, cost-effective and preferably measure composition.
New solution for gas property measurement
In collaboration with:
Bronkhorst is developing a solution for gas property measurement that can be installed in many installations for a wide range of applications.
Probe sensor concept with protective cover removed.
The operational principle of the concept is based on the preferential absorption of gas components on coatings that are applied to interdigitated electrode structures. The absorption is proportional to component concentration and results in a change in electrical properties that can be detected as a variation in capacitance of the coating.
DIE sensor (sensor with a small silicon circuit) with interdigitated electrodes and coatings.
Currently, the concept is being tested in the natural gas network of the Netherlands in close collaboration with grid operators and project partners, Alliander and Gasunie.
Methane concentration in the Dutch national grid measured with the concept and gas chromatograph.
Based on the measured components detected at the different coatings, the calorific value can be calculated, based on the concentration of the measured components. In combination with the integrated pressure and temperature sensor, other key parameters for the characterization of natural gas like; Wobbe Index, Propane Equivalent or combustion air requirement can be determined.
By using these parameters as input for a control system, users can optimize their processes to increase efficiency, reduce pollutants, or manage load. For instance in processes such as:
- Monitoring of gas quality in the national grid
- Process control in the production of biogas/synthetic gas
- Motor management for gas engines and burners
Would you like to learn more about odorization of natural gas? Have a look at our blog ‘How Mass Flow Controllers make our gas smell’
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