Fish consumption is rising. With the increase of the world population and the need for nutritious food, health-conscious consumers are looking for alternatives to “a nice slice of meat”. And they end up eating more fish or vegetarian food.
Specific species of wild fish are getting more and more scarce in open water due to the huge impact of industrialised fishing fleets and overfishing. The sea can not provide the increasing demand. Fortunately, in a trend towards sustainable food production, fish farming is gaining increasingly interest.
Fish farming is the aquatic peer of farming cows, sheep or chicken. For many, many years, we as humans have been farming our main food - have it grown in greenhouses, in stables, or in the fields. Whatever we need, we try to fulfil our demand - more and more in a sustainable way, with respect for natural resources. Fish farming is heading in the same trend.
When people hear about fish farms, they might think of an aquarium, a little pond or a floating net. But in Norway, a major player in fish farming, people think on a larger scale. A typical fish cage near the Norwegian coast has a diameter of tens of meters containing 200,000 to 300,000 salmon. In the near future, these designs will upscale to 1 or 2 million salmon. Only in Norway, at the beginning of 2018 more than 3500 cages for fish farming were floating in the sea. And ‘Norway’ is expanding their knowledge and technology across the world, where people are interested in large scale harvesting of fish in the sea - or maybe also on land.
Salmon is a typical example of a fish that can be fish farmed. They need cold water - seven to nine degrees Celsius is what they like most - which is why this aquaculture is happening in the northern hemisphere, off-shore in the fjords. Moreover: salmon is a very popular fish, often found on the menu all around the world - so there is a high demand.
In fish farming, aeration is literally of vital importance. In addition to food, the fish need oxygen that is supplied in the form of tiny air bubbles (‘aerated’) to the water. But aeration has more advantages.
Also in the early days, lice were a major disease that salmon suffered from. Since salmon lice had an impact on harvest, the fish farmers had to look for solutions. For some reason - maybe it was an experiment or it happened by accident - they started to purge air from the bottom of the cage. And they observed that the movement of the fish started to change. Instead of circling day in and day out - as salmon normally do - they started to move around the cage and became more agile. If the salmon are more agile, the muscles have to work more, and meat from moving animals has a better quality. At the same time, the fish farmers detected that aeration helped them to create a more thermal friendly water environment, with an advantageous temperature, conditions and amount of oxygen. With result that the occurrence of salmon lice reduced. So aeration had - and still has - two advantages: improving the salmon quality, and reducing the unwanted lice. By the way: the words purging and aeration have the same meaning. ‘Aeration’ has the word air inside.
Aeration of fish farms using mass flow controllers
The process of aeration is very simple - like in any aquarium you have at home - and yet can lead to very nice results as we saw above. The air bubbles can be generated by natural water currents (off-shore, down-hill), pumps, impellers, variable area flow meters or - as we do at Bronkhorst - by mass flow controllers and compressors. Here, a compressor generates compressed air from the surrounding atmosphere, and feeds this to the mass flow controller for controlled aeration of the water in the fish cages.
To run fish farms remotely controlled and without much manpower, as much automation as possible is required. This also involves automated feeding. When the fish are fed, the air purging needs to be interrupted to give the fish the opportunity to hunt for the food before it floats out of the cage. In between the feeding periods, the aeration improves the condition of the water and the salmon. Here, it helps that mass flow controllers are remotely controlled from the control room at land. The aeration is stopped when the feeding starts, and when the feeding is over, the previous set point will automatically return and the water condition is as stable as it was before.
But there is more: mass flow controllers provide a potential for saving energy due to better conditions in the cage. The accuracy of the devices is important here. Every cubic meter of air you save by being more accurate - faster control or opening of valves - is of direct influence to your costs for running the compressor. Moreover, in stormy weather you can reduce the aeration, but during a long dry period without water movement, more air bubbles are needed. So essentially, this accuracy and flexibility leads to a better controlled environment.
With MASS-STREAM mass flow controllers we have a robust instrument, which is performing well in the harsh northern surroundings. By Bronkhorst standards, this kind of aeration is a ‘high flow’. Typical air flows for a fish cage are in the range between 600 and 1400 liters per minute.
Mass flow controllers for other types of aeration
Mass flow controllers are suitable for other types of aeration - also again in aquaculture and agriculture. If you grow salmon, you need to breed the fish, which normally occurs on land. Fish eggs and young fish are even more vulnerable to changes, so the environment has to be more stable than for grown fish. Depending on the type of fish, the balance of oxygen in the water is delicate and has to be controlled accurately.
In algae farming, carbon dioxide gas is one of the food components for these species to grow, which needs to be supplied under defined conditions.
A very well-known application of aeration is in food & beverage industry. As you might know, every soda or carbonised drink is a liquid purged with carbon dioxide gas. Related to that: when packaging food, the packaging is purged with nitrogen to remove the oxygen before the food enters the packaging, as one of the steps to prolong the shelf life of the food.
“Fish farming with controlled aeration by mass flow controllers will support the focus on good fish quality, control of diseases and increase of the yield” according to Nicolaus Dirscherl, Managing Director of M+W Instruments GmbH.
For more information about the usage of mass flown controller in a fish farming application, please check our application story Aeration in Fish Farming.
Check out the products used in this application.
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For us, as supplier of flow meters and flow controllers for low flow rates of gases and liquids, the most essential thing is supplying a proper working measuring device of high quality to our customers. Therefore, quality control is important. As a final step in production, we calibrate all our flow meters to provide accurate flow measurements.
As manager of the Bronkhorst Calibration Center I sometimes experience misinterpretation concerning calibration and its meaning. Occasionally calibration gets confused with concepts like re-calibration and adjustment. Therefore, in this blog I want to clarify these concepts.
What is the difference between calibration and recalibration of flow meters?
In short, calibration is nothing more than comparing the output of a measuring device with a reference. For Bronkhorst devices this can be done by a Bronkhorst service office, Calibration Centre or by the end user if they have the right equipment.
Re-calibration is a popular word for doing a ‘re-‘check and is often referred to as when a purchased flow meter has been sent back to the factory for a periodic calibration check. So, re-calibration is actually the same as calibration, the flow instrument will be compared to a fixed reference, again. In principle calibration does not involve any adjustment.
What is adjustment and when is this necessary?
In practice, the most essential thing for the customer is to have a proper working measuring device, and therefore, subjecting a meter to a periodic calibration check is also called a calibration “as found”. If the meter shows a deviation outside its specification limit, adjustment is advised. Adjustment can be carried out by a Bronkhorst service office, a (Bronkhorst) calibration center or by the customer if he has the right equipment. The instrument will be adjusted to indicate the true value again. After the adjustment the instrument will be subjected to a calibration “as left” and that comes with the calibration certificate.
Why is calibration necessary?
Every instrument is subject to aging, wear and dirt. In order to ensure the instruments measure values representing the truth, a periodic check is often recommended. For some applications a periodic check is even required due to legislation, norms or directives.
Minor deviations can be caused by aging of mechanical and analog electric components, this is almost unavoidable. If the deviation is more than a few percent, this is usually caused by dirt or wear. In this case full service, repair and new adjustments are recommended for the instrument.
Check out the top 4 questions about calibration on our FAQ page:
1. How often should I perform a calibration check on my mass flow devices?
2. How to interpret the data and terminology on Bronkhorst calibration certificates?
3. In case of an emergency, can I clean, repair and calibrate the instruments myself?
4. Is it possible to use the flow meter/flow controller for gases other than they are calibrated for?
Bronkhorst Global Service Offices & Calibration Centre
At Bronkhorst Global Service Offices and at our Calibration Centre in Ruurlo (NL) we are capable of calibrating and adjusting Bronkhorst flow devices and also third party instruments within our scope.
Learn more about our Calibration Centre.
Besides that, Bronkhorst Calibration Centre has been accredited as ISO 17025 compliant by the Dutch Accreditation Council (RvA), providing international recognition of its technical competency and qualification. Read our blog about the Bronkhorst Calibration Centre.
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A flow meter’s specifications are pivotal elements in choosing which one is right for your application. Two important statistics are its accuracy and repeatability. Let’s start with explaining what these two parameters mean:
Flow Meter Accuracy
Accuracy is how close the measurement is to the true value. In flow meters, that means how close the output of the meter is to its calibration curve. This is expressed as a percentage, e.g. ±1%. It means that any given reading can be in error 1% above or below the calibration curve. In general it can be said the lower the percentage, the more accurate the meter. However, this also depends on the specification of either FS (Full Scale) or Rd (Reading). The meaning of Full Scale and Reading will be explained later in this blog.
Flow meters are becoming more and more accurate, especially with the advent of mass flow meters.
Flow Meter Repeatability
Repeatability is producing the same outcome given the same conditions. In other words, a flow meter should produce the same readings when operated under the same variables and conditions. This, too, is expressed as a ± percentage.
While accuracy usually takes the spotlight in the measurement world, repeatability is the foundation on which accuracy rests. You can have high repeatability without high accuracy but you cannot have high accuracy without high repeatability. It is not helpful if the meter is highly accurate only once in a while. If your data is unreliable, if you get different numbers under the same circumstances and setup, there is no way those numbers can all be accurate.
Accuracy versus Repeatability
Is accuracy always important?
No one wants an inaccurate meter, but not all applications require high amounts of accuracy. It may be acceptable to stray further from the calibration curve if you are only looking to get an idea of how much is flowing through a pipe. It isn’t acceptable if you are mixing pharmaceuticals for consumption or volatile elements. How accurate your meter needs to be is important when selecting a flow meter, because usually the more accurate a meter, the higher the price.
When you see an accuracy specification, it should be expressed as a percent of Full Scale (FS) or Reading (Rd or RD). The difference between those can be significant.
Read our blog “Is the high accuracy trend right?”
What is Full Scale (FS)?
The definition of Full Scale is “Closeness to the actual value expressed as percentage of the maximum scale value.”
With Full Scale, the error remains the same but the percentage changes as the flow goes up and down the flow range. If the accuracy is calibrated 1% of 200 ln/min then the error is 0.01 x 200 ln/min = 2 ln/min. If the flow is 100 ln/min, the error is still 2 ln/min or 2%, a much bigger percentage.
What is Reading (Rd or RD)?
The definition of Reading (Rd) is “Closeness to the actual value expressed as percentage of the actual value.
Full Scale (FS) versus Reading (Rd)
With Reading, the accuracy is the percentage of what is being read. The percentage stays the same, no matter where the flow is in the flow range. If it is 1% at 200 ln/min it would be 1% at 100 ln/min. So the error for a 200 ln/min flow would be 2 ln/min but for 100 ln/min it would be 1 ln/min rather than the 2 ln/min of Full Scale.
Depending on the application, the difference between Full Scale and Reading can quickly add up and have a significant impact on the end product.
Full Scale (FS) versus Reading (Rd)
Full scale is actually a carryover from mechanical gauges when readings were dependent on physical marks on a dial. Digital meters now can give much more precise readings, so high-end meters generally use Reading rather than Full Scale.
Although you don’t want an inaccurate flow meter, not all applications require high amounts of accuracy.
In terms of mass flow, accuracy requirements can change the type of sensor being discussed. If you need very high accuracy you can have a Coriolis flow meter, if high accuracy is less important, you may need a Constant Temperature Anemometry (CTA) or other sensor type.
Anglian Water Services cleans water to the highest standard, delivers it to millions of homes, and carefully manages it to ensure it never runs out in an area of the UK. They started a project to optimize and further control dosing of phosphates in the public water system.
The functionality of orthophosphoric acid in the public water system
Public water systems commonly add phosphates to the drinking water as a corrosion inhibitor to prevent the leaching of lead and copper from pipes and fixtures. Inorganic phosphates (e.g. phosphoric acid, zinc phosphate, and sodium phosphate) are added to the water to create orthophosphate, which forms a protective coating of insoluble mineral scale on the inside of service lines and household plumbing. The coating serves as a liner that keeps corrosion elements in water from dissolving some of the metal in the drinking water. As a result, lead and copper levels in the water will remain low and within the norms to protect the public health..
What was the original process ?
In the original process a down-steam analyser was in-place to measure the concentration of orthophosphoric acid in the main flow. The measurement results were checked against the required concentration and used to adjust the pump speed and therefore the level of orthophosphoric acid in the main flow. With this process Anglian Water Services can secure copper and lead concentration levels in the water acceptable to protect the public health. Nevertheless the process had room for improvement, which will be discussed in this blog.
The original process of record
What are the limitations in the original process?
The reactive feed-back loop mechanism for dosing phosphates was not a preferred working method. We could not react quickly enough to the changing main flow to reduce or increase the dose proportionally. We had to ensure that we dosed to a level meeting the legal requirements assuming the station was processing maximum flow.
Secondary costs were added to the system by needing double redundancy on the analyser to ensure there is no break in the measurement of orthophosphoric acid levels.
- Reducing phosphate levels.
- Reducing the cost of meeting legal environmental standards for the business.
- Remove the downstream analyser and redundant spare in the process of record.
Two sensor technologies were evaluated to enhance the process ; Differential Pressure and Coriolis technology.
The Differential Pressure instrument was the most cost effective and allowed us to meter the Orthophosphoric acid flow as a volume, it would take an analogue signal input and adjust the dose proportionally to the main flow.
The Coriolis Mass Flow Meter utilizes direct Mass Flow Measurement, which is preferable over volume flow for this application and is more accurate and repeatable, but is more expensive. It would also take an analogue signal input and adjust the dose proportionally to the main flow.
Combination of mini CORI-FLOW with Tuthill pump
Making a decision appeared to be based around return on investment. Essentially the time taken to generate sufficient savings. However, during the demonstration of the Coriolis Mass Flow Meter we learned something new that would change the direction of our final design. The Coriolis Mass Flow Meter gave the density of the fluid being metered as an output.
Why was this important?
Phosphoric acid it sold in diluted concentrations , usually 80% in solution. What we have found is that there is a variation in the actual concentration at the point of use.
At this point we already knew that either the Differential pressure or Coriolis technology could support us to enhance the process of record. Now we had the chance to go to the next level and take a previously unavailable but very important parameter and use it to really refine the dose ratio.
The extra density parameter available with the Coriolis Mass Flow Meter made the decision for us. Dosing would now be controlled proportionally to the main flow and the density/quality of the phosphoric acid being used.
The enhanced process
What are the projected benefits using Mass Flow Meters:
As we look to go live on the first five installations of this technology, we are projecting the following:
- Stable concentration of orthophosphoric acid in the public water system.
- Maintaining the public health commitments of the Water Industry.
- Decreasing the addition of phosphoric acid into the environment by significant levels.
- Two-fold cost reductions: by eliminating the down-stream analysers and the consumption of phosphoric acid.
At Anglian Water Services they live with a Love Every Drop approach. The Love Every Drop approach is a vision for how they believe a modern utilities company should be run. That vision means creating a country with a resilient environment that enables sustainable growth and can cope with the pressures of climate change. Creating infrastructure that is affordable and reliable, meeting the needs of customers, communities and the environment. We want our people and our communities to be resilient too. Phosphoric acid is connected with the concept of planetary boundaries according to Rockström et al. 2009. Anglian Water Services was able to reduce the consumption of phosphoric acid in their processes without sacrificing the quality of the water. This fits with the way they run their business.
Our water treatment specialist are more than happy to help you face your challenges in water treatment. Send us your questions
Contact our Water Treatment Specialists
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This weekend it’s the Easter Weekend! It’s the top selling season if you look at chocolate gifts. If you have a look in the supermarket now, you will find chocolate eggs, easter bunnies and bonbons in many variations. In our office we also have a large bowl filled with colourful chocolate eggs already, delicious!
And if we talk about various flavours of chocolate, that’s part were flow instruments come into the picture.
Chocolate confectionery industry
I would like to share my findings within the growing chocolate confectionery industry and the trends in using flavours. Who else can do this better than a woman you should think, as 75% of the women report that they indulge in chocolate, against 68% of the men.
Chocolate… a growing worldwide market of $100 billion once started with a simple choice between Milk, Dark or White chocolate. Nowadays the choice in variations is huge due to flavourings.
Chocolate as a seasonal gift is still very popular. Around the holidays we tend to buy more chocolate. The top selling season for chocolate is not Valentine’s Day, as you might think, but Easter. Besides treating yourself with chocolate, there is an emotional aspect. Chocolate can have a positive effect on your mood, especially with young adults. A popular reason for the increasing sales.
The majority of the chocolate buyers are looking for options with mix-ins as opposed to the conventional unflavoured varieties.
Flavour and textures
The global chocolate market has seen considerable innovation in flavour and texture. New product development continues to be imaginative, with more exploration of flavours and textures in addition to the traditional sweetness. However, the consumer base tends to be rather traditional as the most popular flavours still are Hazelnut, Caramel and Almond.
Older consumers tend to have a lower engagement with chocolate. The lack of interest reflects their desire to eat healthy. To regain this group of adult customers, companies have turned to tactics such as using alcohol flavours, organic ingredients, and premium positioning such as dark chocolate with Limoncello or chocolates filled with sweet liqueur.
It may come as a surprise, but a healthy lifestyle, which is one of the major trends worldwide, is also responsible for a substantial growth of the chocolate market and that’s not without reason. Chocolate, specifically dark chocolate with more than 85% cocoa, can offer beneficial health benefits. This results in labels mentioning:
- Rich in fiber, iron, magnesium, copper, manganese and other minerals
- Powerful source of antioxidants
- Protective against cardiovascular disease
The growing awareness of the health benefits of dark chocolate is one of the reasons why consumption of chocolate is increasing. With the rising popularity of dark chocolate, the sales for other variations are also going up. People are seeking other ‘healthy’ variations, such as sugar-free, gluten-free, kosher or fair trade chocolate. Due to these ethical claims, the industry has seen an enormous growth in variations.
In order to enhance a healthy image for chocolate, functional ingredients such as fibers, proteins, micronutrients, quick energy (guarana extracts), green tea extract, or chia seeds are more and more often added to the chocolate.
The increasing demand for chocolate also has its downside. About 3 million tons of cocoa beans are consumed annually of which more than 70% are produced by four West African countries: Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon. Cocoa is a delicate crop and trees planted a quarter century ago have hit their production peak and the land they grown on are not as fertile as it once was. A large rehabilitation of land and trees is necessary to prevent the loss of crop production. Also climate changes are taking their toll.
This results in high costs for raw materials and unstable economic conditions in cocoa-producing nations. To prevent a supply shortage, a number of well-known chocolate producing companies have decided to invest in rehabilitation of the land and trees to make sure that cocoa will be available in the future.
This happens in a time that developing countries such as China, India, and Russia expect to increase their chocolate sales volume by 30%.
Mass Flow Meters in your production process
Due to the enormous growth of chocolate variations, using flavours and functional ingredients, mass flow meters and controllers find their way into the confectionery industry. Coriolis flow meters in combination with a pump are an ideal solution for dosing flavours and functional ingredients. Using the Coriolis instruments for additive dosing means less downtime between batches, traceability of ingredients, and higher product consistency and quality.
Watch our video about an additive dosing solution for the confectionery market.
Download our brochure (Ultra) low flow Coriolis competence for the confectionery industry.
If we want to live healthy lives, we need to know the nature and content of undesirable chemical elements in our environment. If a municipal council wants to clean up a piece of land to develop a new suburb, it needs to know whether heavy metals or toxic substances such as arsenic remain in the soil from the previous use of the land. Likewise, the managers of drinking water sources, surface water bodies and fishing areas need to know about the quality of their water, to determine whether it contains excessive levels of undesirable substances that will have to be removed. And in order for air quality to be considered good, the trace element content in the solid particles floating in the air must not be too high.
Outside of the environmental field, there are other places where it is helpful to be able to identify and quantify the elements that are present – such as establishing the concentration of metal in lubricating oil to determine how quickly an engine will wear out, or the concentration of fertilisers in agricultural soil to determine whether additional fertiliser is required.
Flow meters and regulators also play a major role here. As an industry specialist in the analytical market, allow me to explain how it all works.
Inductively Coupled Plasma – Atomic Emission Spectrometry, ICP-AES
As you can see, there are many applications in which it is useful to know what chemical elements are present and in what quantities. ICP-AES is a good analytical technique for measuring the nature and concentration of elements in solids, liquids and gases. This acronym stands for Inductively Coupled Plasma – Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Due to its high accuracy – up to the ppb (parts per billion) range – ICP-AES is particularly well suited to analysing trace elements, i.e. very low concentrations. This technique is excellent for detecting metals (such as mercury) and metalloids (such as arsenic), and dozens of elements can be analysed simultaneously. But what is behind this technique – and how does the careful delivery of gases play a role?
Controlled supply of argon gas through a flow controller
The short version: The ICP-AES method of elemental analysis uses an inductively coupled plasma to produce excited atoms and ions of the elements in the sample to be measured, whose characteristic spectrum is measured using atomic emission spectrometry (AES) as they return to their ground state. The intensity of the lines in the spectrum is directly proportional to the concentration of the elements in the sample.
The ICP-AES equipment can only analyse samples in liquid form. That’s not really a problem for water, but things get a bit tricky with soil samples and other solid substances. To unlock the chemical elements, you have to dissolve the sample in a strong acid: aqua regia, a mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. A peristaltic pump sucks the sample liquid out of a storage vessel and transports it to the nebuliser, which turns the liquid into an aerosol form or mist. To accurately regulate the concentration of the mist – and to dilute it if necessary – a flow of argon gas is supplied to the nebuliser, with the assistance of a flow controller. The mist then enters the reactor chamber, where it collides with the plasma that is already in the chamber.
If you supply a gas with sufficient energy – by passing a high electrical voltage through the gas using a coil – then some of the gas atoms release electrons. In addition to the original gas particles, you now have a mixture of negative electrons and positively-charged ions. This ‘ionised gas mixture’ of charged particles is called a plasma; plasma is considered to be the fourth state in which matter can exist, in addition to the solid, liquid and gaseous states. With ICP, argon gas forms the basis for the plasma, and this gas must be supplied with great precision, using flow controllers. The plasma has a very high temperature of around 7000 degrees Celsius. Because the plasma must have the correct composition at all times, a precise and continuous flow of argon gas is important. And to protect the outside world from this high temperature, a cooling gas (often but not always argon) is channelled around the outside of the reactor.
Regulating the mist
When the mist with the chemical elements to be measured collides with the plasma, these elements are also converted into plasma. The elements absorb so much energy that they enter an excited state. Elements don’t like to be in an excited state, so they try to return to their ground state at a lower energy level. During this transition, the elements emit radiation that is characteristic of each element. This radiation is measured by a spectrometer, and the intensity of the measured radiation is directly proportional to the amount of the element in question in the sample.
Since each element has its own characteristic set of wavelengths of the emitted radiation, you can use this technique to identify multiple elements at the same time. And if you have a calibration curve for the elements concerned, or if you entered an internal standard into the nebuliser earlier in the process, then you can also quantify these amounts.
Spectrometer, ICP-AES or ICP-OES
The spectrometer within the AES part is a combination of mirrors, prisms, bars, monochromators/polychromators and detectors, which guide and ultimately measure the emitted radiation. To prevent any disruption to this process – such as the absorption of radiation by gases containing oxygen – the area where these optical objects are located is continuously flushed with nitrogen. This gas flow does not have to be very precise, but it does have to be highly reproducible. The use of flow controllers is essential to ensure this reproducibility. Incidentally, you may come across the term ICP-OES (optical emission spectrometry), which is an alternate name for ICP-AES (atomic emission spectrometry). These are two different names for the same technology.
ICP-MS is a similar technique for elemental analysis; the biggest difference is that the method of detection is not optical. The charged particles from the plasma enter a mass spectrometer (MS); here, they are separated on the basis of their mass-to-charge ratio, and the relative ratio of each of these charged particles is recorded. ICP-AES is performed at atmospheric pressure, but ICP-MS requires a vacuum. The detection limit for ICP-MS is lower than for ICP-AES.
In an environmental analysis, you can look not only at the total quantity of an element in a sample, but also at whether the element occurs in its free form or as a component of a chemical compound. By way of illustration: inorganic arsenic compounds are often more toxic than their counterparts in organic compounds. You can use ICP-AES and ICP-MS to distinguish between different forms of elements, a process known as ‘speciation’. However, this requires the different forms to be separated from each other before the ICP process, for example through ion exchange chromatography (IC). For this reason, the IC/ICP combination is very common.
Mass flow meters and flow controllers for ICP-AES
When ICP was first invented, the gases were added manually. When ICP became automated gas regulation was automated too, and mass flow meters were introduced. Mass flow meters and flow controllers are devices used in ICP-AES to supply inert gases. If you have good gas regulation, the entire system is more accurate and more stable, enabling lower detection limits. Which is helpful, given the increasingly strict quality and environmental standards.
Bronkhorst supplies flow meters for the analytical market; our customers include a number of large suppliers of analytical equipment. These customers are often supplied with specific ‘manifold’ solutions. In these solutions multiple functionalities are integrated into a single body, custom built for the customer. Compact instruments with small footprints are becoming more and more important in laboratories where space is increasingly restricted.
Read the application story “Controlled supply of gases in Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-AES) for environmental analysis”.