You would think that measurements of mass flow would be expressed in units of mass, such as grams/hour, milligrams/second etc. Most users, however, think and work in units of volume. That’s OK, at least when we are talking about the same reference conditions. Let me start with an example:
Mass versus Volume
Imagine you have a cylinder of 1 liter, which is closed by means of a moveable piston of negligible weight. This cylinder contains 1 liter of air at ambient pressure, approximately 1 bar. The weight of this volume of air at 0°C is 1.293 g, this is the mass.
When we move the piston half way to the bottom of the cylinder, then the contained volume of air is only ½ liter, the pressure is approximately 2 bar, but the mass hasn’t been changed, 1.293 g; nothing has been added, or left out.
According to this example, mass flow should actually be expressed in units of weight such as g/h and mg/s. Many users, however, think and work in units of volume. This not a problem, provided conditions under which the mass is converted to volume are agreed upon.
Using density in converting mass flow to volume flow
In order to use density in converting mass flow to volumetric flow, we must pick a set of specific pressure and temperature conditions at which we use the density value for the gas.
The conditions that are agreed upon contain various references, normal reference and standard reference, available in European or American style. What is de difference?
Normal reference, European style
Following the ‘European’ definition, a temperature of 0°C and a pressure of 1,013 bar are selected as ‘normal’ reference conditions, indicated by the underlying letter “n” in the unit of volume used (mln/min or m3n/h). The direct thermal mass flow measurement method is always based on these reference conditions unless otherwise requested.
An example conversion to volumetric units using Normal reference conditions:
The mass flow meter indicates 100 g/h of Air flow.
• Density Air (@ 0°C) = 1.293 kg/m3
• X ln/m Air = 100 g/h / (60 minutes x 1.293 kg/m3)
• Flow = 1.29 ln/m Air
Standard reference, European style
Alternatively, a temperature of 20°C and a pressure of 1,013 bar are used to refer to ‘standard’ reference conditions, indicated by the underlying letter ‘s’ in the unit of volume used (mls/min or m3s/h).
An example conversion to volumetric units using Standard conditions:
The mass flow meter indicates 100 g/h Air flow.
• Density Air (@ 20°C): 1.205 kg/m3
• X ls/m Air = 100 g/h / (60 minutes x 1.205 kg/m3)
• Flow = 1.38 ls/m Air
If the prefix ‘s’ has been used, it refers to the American style.
Standard reference, American style
According to the ‘American’ definition the prefix ‘s’ in sccm, slm or scfh refers to ‘standard’ conditions, 101.325 kPa absolute (14.6959 psia) and temperature of 0°C (32°F).
Please be aware of the reference conditions when ordering an instrument. ‘Normal’ and ‘Standard’ can be relative to each customer.
Why is this important? Because mixing up these reference conditions causes an offset in what the customer expects to see by greater than 7%!
Learn more about the technologies of Bronkhorst and read more about the Mass Flow Theory
Table with the normal- and standard references, divided into European- and American style
A control valve is used to control a flow by varying the size of the flow passage as directed by a signal from a controller, such as an on-board PID controller in a flow meter. It is one of the most used accessories in flow control.
An accessory for mass flow controllers
Control valves can be furnished as an intergral part of mass flow controllers and pressure controllers or as a separate component used in combination with a flow- or pressure meter. Together with a feedback loop from the mass flow controller or pressure controller, the valve controls the amount of flow passing through to go to an imposed flow- or pressure setpoint.
Depending on the application it is often clear whether your mass flow controller needs a shut-off (open-close) valve or a control valve, or whether one needs a normally opened or normally closed valve. Within the group of control valves, there are a number of different valves available, each having their own parameter ranges, advantages, and disadvantages.
In this blog I will highlight some valves and focus on how to cope with higher absolute and differential pressures, and how to get higher flowrates at low differential pressures.
The direct control valve
A direct control valve consists of an orifice for controlling the flow and a controlled surface that determines the size of the opening that flow can pass through, and thus determines the amount of flow passing through the valve.
• Advantage: such a valve is relatively fast, cheap, and uses only little power to control the flow.
• The disadvantage here is that it can only handle limited pressures and flows.
Let’s take an electromagnetic valve as an example:
For a valve, the force (F) needed to overcome to open the valve is determined by the orifice diameter size (d) and the pressure difference (Δp) over the valve , (F ~ Δp * ¼ d2). When either the pressure differential or the orifice diameter gets higher, the direct control valve will not open adequately due to this pressure force, which can be > 15 N for a 200 bar differential pressure over a 1mm orifice, pushing the valve shut.
An electromagnetic valve can only exert a force of ca. 5N on its plunger. It could be a possibility to use a stronger coil, delivering a larger magnetic force. However, mass flow controllers often have a limited power supply and the amount of heat that is produced can become a problem as well. Resulting in a limited maximum flow, proportional to pressure and the diameter squared.
In summary, most direct control valves are not suitable for high flows, or to handle high differential pressures or absolute pressures due to these restrictions. The direct control valves could be used for low flows from 1mln/min up to approximately 50ln/min.
What alternatives do we have?
The easiest solution to cope with higher pressures is a redesign of the direct control valve. As the orifice size is limited, it can be used for relatively small flows (up to 20ln/min) . To handle the larger pressure differences, up to 200 bar differential pressure (bard), the valve and mass flow controller body have to be more robust. Most valves can not handle a burst of 200 bard; either the sealing material can rupture, or mechanical parts can not handle the sudden force bursts that are possible at 200 bard.
The dimensions of the valve are only slighty larger than for a common valve, and thus the entire mass flow controller. On the other side, low flows are often limited due to leakage through the valve at high pressure differences.
- Indirect control valve, a 2-phase valve
To go to even higher pressures and more flow, up to 200ln/min, we have to take a larger step in changing our mass flow controller. With a so called indirect control valve (figure 1) higher flows and higher absolute and differential pressures can be reached.
[Figure 1 – Indirect control valve]
An indirect control valve (or 2-phase control valve) consists of:
- a direct controlled pilot valve (A), with the behavior as described before, and without needing any extra power.
- an additional valve in the body; a pressure compensation part (B) to maintain a constant pressure difference (P1 -P2) of only a few bars across the pilot valve (A). By doing so, both the inlet and outlet pressure may change without having any impact on the valve’s function. The pressure force over the pressure compensated part keeps the valve closed. Only when the top valve opens, the pressure force is brought back to a small enough value to open the valve and control the flow.
So, the indirect control valve consists of two valves in series (A+B), where both the pressure drop and the orifice size together determine the resulting flow.
The disadvantages of this valve are its size and the relative high costs. Besides that, a minimal pressure difference is needed to close the pressure compensation part of the valve. Also, the orifices are still limited in size, thus to get to 200 ln/min a minimal inlet pressure of > 150 bara is needed.
To get such flows at lower pressures, a whole different kind of valve is needed, like a pressure compensated valve, a bellow valve.
- Pressure compensated valve
It is possible to use larger orifices and reach higher flows with a direct control valve, but to do that, the pressure force in the valve has to be reduced. This can be done with a pressure compensated bellow valve, where the effective orifice for the pressure force has been reduced significantly (figure 2). With a bellow valve, flows of several hundreds of liters per minute can be reached with a minimum pressure difference. However, the absolute pressure is limited due to the design and the valve is much larger and more expensive than a common direct control valve.
Conclusion: Depending on the pressure that you want to put over your mass flow controller and the outlet flow needed, you can either use:
- a direct controlled high pressure valve (up to 200 bara and 20 ln/min), or
- an indirect pressure compensated valve (up to 700 bara or 400 bard and 200 ln/min).
To reach high flows at low pressures, a pressure compensated valve will be the best solution.
Have a look at the control valves we often use in combination with our flow meters or pressure meters.
Prof. Aufderheide has been working for more than 30 years in the field of cell-based alternative methods with a focus on inhalation toxicology, which studies the effect of airborne substances on the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. For this research, she has developed special equipment together with colleagues: the patented CULTEX RFS module, which makes it possible to treat the cultivated cells with these active substances directly. Increasing pollution of the environment and workplaces demands new testing methods to predict the level of risk presented by such substances. The high sensitivity of biological testing systems requires a stable and precise technological set-up to test of such atmospheres where, in addition to the CULTEX technology, mass flow controllers are of vital importance in adjusting and controlling the aerosol flows over the cells.
The history of humankind is characterised by its receptiveness to stimulants. Since the beginning of time, these substances have included intoxicants such as alcohol, as well as smoking. Although we are all aware of the health risks, 'most people only give up their vices when they cause them discomfort' (William Somerset Maugham).
This adage is particularly true of smoking. It is widely known that excessive smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer, yet we still yield to the temptation of the 'nicotine fix'. Epidemiological studies have repeatedly shown the harmful effects of this addictive pleasure, but attempts to quit smoking often fail, despite the certain knowledge that every cigarette can be one too many.
In response, the cigarette industry is propagating the e-cigarette as an alternative. Combustion of tobacco releases thousands of harmful substances that are of course inhaled by smokers as well. In contrast, the e-cigarette lets you inhale a vapour that does not contain any products which present a risk to your health; at least, it is claimed. This 'vapour' is created from an aromatic liquid (main ingredients include propylene glycol, glycerine, ethanol, various flavourings and nicotine, as required) using a vaporiser.
Accordingly, the electronic cigarette is marketed by the cigarette industry as a 'healthier' alternative to traditional cigarettes or a means to help people quit smoking. A lot of money is being invested to prove scientifically that e-cigarette products are less harmful than tobacco products. This statement is essentially true. However, it does not really answer the question about the effects of the 'vapour'. Epidemiological studies, such as those for cigarette smoking, are not available and no one can therefore rule out that excessive or long-term consumption could cause harm to users’ health.
Figure 1: A. CULTEX®RFS Compact with 6 transwell positions that are exposed separately to the test atmosphere. B. The test atmosphere is sucked centrally via the mass flow controllers into the module in a controlled manner, distributed radially to the cell culture vessels and drawn continually across the cells.
In vitro studies
So how can I now approach this question? The only remaining option is to carry out in vitro studies. To do so, we use living cell cultures as an alternative to animal experiments.
Inhaled active substances first reach the epithelial tissues lining the lungs. These tissues are made up of a multitude of cells that serve to defend against or inactivate the inhaled substances based on their special functions. We find mucus-producing cells here whose secretions 'capture' harmful substances, as well as cilia-bearing cells that can transport the mucus away.
Other cells have a detoxifying effect, while we have sufficient replacement cells in an intact body which can replace the function of damaged or dead cells. In the field of cell-based research, we can make these human cell populations available for research (see Figure 2A). These cells are cultivated in so-called transwells on microporous membranes, where they are fed nutrients from the underside of the membrane while the apical (outer) part of the culture can react with the surrounding atmosphere.
Figure 2: Cross-section of cell culture insert membranes with HE (Hematoxylin and Eosin) stained immortalized NHBE cells (CL-1548). After 21 days of cultivation at the air-liquid interface, the cells were exposed repeatedly (daily for five days and after a recovery phase of two days again on three subsequent days, maximum exposure cycle: 8 smoke exposure repetitions) to clean air (CA), mainstream cigarette smoke (CS; 4x K3R4F cigarettes per run according to ISO 3308, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA) and e-liquid vapor (EC) without nicotine (Tennessee Cured, Johnsons Creek, Hartland, WI, USA). K3R4F cigarettes were smoked by a smoking robot and operated as follows: 24 puffs with a volume of 35 mL in 2 s, a blowout time of 7 s and an inter-puff interval of 10s. The electronic cigarette type InSmoke Reevo Mini (InSmoke Shop, Switzerland) was handled in a comparable manner: 50 puffs (volume 35 mL, puff duration 2 seconds, low-out time of 7 seconds) with an inter-puff interval of 10 s.
Mass Flow Controller – the guardians of cell exposure
Over a number of years, we have developed efficient cell exposure systems: the CULTEX®RFS module, which allows for a direct, stable and reproducible exposure of lung cells at the air-liquid interface ([ALI); see Figure 1A).
Their stability in particular guarantees significant results, due to the aerophysically adjusted design of the CULTEX®RFS module on the one hand and the use of the computer-guided mass flow controller on the other (Bronkhorst IQ+FLOW series and EL-FLOW Select series), the control and design of which have been adapted to cell-based exposure. The flow control ensures a precise and reproducible atmosphere for the exposure of the cells to the test gases. It is primarily the robustness of the experimental design which delivers results that allow us to draw conclusions about the effect of the respective test atmospheres. In this case, the various cells were exposed in an unpressurised atmosphere to the e-cigarette vapour (50 puffs per run) and compared with normal cigarette smoke (24 puffs per run); the cells were exposed to the respective doses for 8 days. A control was provided in the form of cells exposed to clean air.
The remarkable results are summarised in Figure 2. Comparing histological preparations of cells treated with smoke and e-cigarette vapour to the clean air control confirms the expectation that cigarette smoke causes a clear reduction in mucus production as well as the number and occurrence of cilia. A comparable – albeit less pronounced – effect could also be observed for the e-liquid aerosol after this treatment period, however. Compared with the cells exposed to clean air, we observed a significant effect that certainly should give us pause for thought. The statement that the 'vapour is less harmful than smoke' must not be confused with the conclusion that the vapour is not harmful at all. In the future, this problem will have to be addressed in order to tackle long-term harm through preventive means.
Products used in this research are IQ+FLOW mass flow controller and EL-FLOW Select thermal mass flow controller.
This time’s guest blogger is Dr Jornt Spit. He’s a researcher at the Radius research group at Thomas More University of Applied Sciences in Belgium, and has a background in biochemistry and biotechnology. The Radius researchers are working on renewable biomass, involving the cultivation of algae and insects that are then processed into valuable raw materials for a bio-based economy. As part of their research activities, they use Bronkhorst mass flow controllers to enable precision flow of carbon dioxide.
CO2: a valuable alternative carbon source
In recent years, carbon dioxide (CO2) has been steadily attracting attention as a valuable source of carbon. Of course, the rising concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is a major and growing concern, and this is driving an increasing focus on sustainability in society. In line with this, we at Thomas More are working to achieve a more circular economy and a more bio-based economy. This means obtaining materials, chemicals and energy from renewable (energy) sources, and not from fossil fuels. Alternative biomass could become a major source in this approach.
Currently, the main activity of our research group is cultivating renewable biomass, partly in the form of algae. We’re doing this under controlled conditions in the horizontal tubes of a photo-bioreactor. We use pure gaseous CO2 as the source of carbon. We’re cultivating algae with a view towards various applications. Algae can be very useful in the cattle feed sector, for instance, or in the food sector, the health products or ‘neutraceuticals’ sector or the cosmetics sector. Our research group is not heavily involved in further developing these applications – we’re focusing on optimising the cultivation of the algae, or in other words the process technology aspect.
Algae for conversion into valuable raw materials
Micro-algae form a really large and diverse group. More than 50,000 different species of algae have been identified and there are probably many more, running into hundreds of thousands. They are single-celled organisms, but can sometimes also form colonies. Algae are photoautotrophic organisms, which means that they use CO2 as a source of carbon and then convert this into sugars by means of photosynthesis. The micro-algae that we cultivate contain a particularly large amount of interesting substances: proteins, sugars and fats being the main groups. In addition, the micro-algae also make high-value chemicals such as pigments and antioxidants. To give one example, we at Radius cultivate a special alga that produces the valuable red colourant phycoerythrin. You can pretty much regard algae as tiny factories that can produce all kinds of substances that we need – so in order to synthesize these substances, we don’t need to completely reinvent the wheel. The various algae cells have evolved under evolutionary pressure to make these interesting substances, simply using a little sunlight, CO2 and a few nutrients. That means there’s a huge potential for utilising these substances.
An algae culture increases in density through cell division. If conditions are right, then the algae will continue their cell division until a culture reaches its maximum density. At this point, the algae are harvested, so the algae biomass itself is the product. In our closed photobioreactors, we achieve a density of 1 to 2 grams of dry material per litre. When this point is reached, we take the algae out. This biomass can be directly used for food purposes or as cattle feed, but we can also further process the biomass, ‘break it open’ and extract the most interesting substances. If we take this latter approach, it’s called bio-refining or extraction. The whole process of cultivating, harvesting and further processing the algae presents a major challenge. That’s because each step is important and has to be carried out as efficiently as possible to ensure that the entire operation is profitable.
Mass flow controllers for precision flow of CO2
To optimise growth, it’s important to select an alga that grows well under the conditions we can provide in our unit. Not all algae species can absorb CO2 with the same efficiency, and not all algae grow equally fast. In our research, we find out which temperatures are best for growing the various species of algae, and how much light a particular alga needs. Here on the campus, we use natural sunlight: the photobioreactors are in a greenhouse. As a result, the algae grow during the day, when the sun shines, and not at night. One of the research questions we are investigating as part of the ‘EnOp’ Interreg project is: if we add extra CO2 to the reactor, how much faster will the algae grow, and which algae types absorb the CO2 most efficiently? In order to answer this question, we need mass flow controllers, because we want to know exactly how much CO2 we have added.
The CO2 is mixed with inflowing air that is channelled to the reactor, after which the CO2 dissolves in the liquid culture fluid, which also contains other nutrients. Since CO2 (carbon dioxide) is a weak acid, the pH level of the fluid steadily falls. This has a negative effect, because most algae grow best at a pH level between roughly 7 and 8. However, as the algae grow, they absorb CO2 from the fluid, making the pH rise again. The acidity level is a highly critical factor – if the pH moves outside the desired zone, then the algae tend to flocculate. The dosing system is therefore linked to the pH level, to optimise the supply of CO2 as precisely as possible. In this way, we can establish the maximum growing speed of the alga and how much CO2 we need to add to achieve this.
If we add too much CO2, then the pH of the fluid will fall too strongly, and the algae won’t grow enough. If we don’t add enough CO2, that in itself isn’t a problem, but the algae will grow more slowly, because their growth is limited by lack of carbon dioxide. For each alga, an optimum amount of CO2 can be added. Moreover, the CO2 needs to be given time to dissolve in the fluid. If the CO2 doesn’t dissolve, then it will ultimately escape from the reactor again, which means you’re simply wasting CO2. Whether the CO2 is effectively dissolved and absorbed therefore needs to be taken into account as well. The design of the reactor plays an important role in managing this aspect.
As you might have noticed, precision is very important in this process. The mass flow controller ensures that we can keep the whole process stable around the right pH level and that we know exactly how much CO2 has been added.
…and the future?
If this process is scaled up to actual production scale, then logistics will become a major factor in determining where the CO2 comes from. In principle, it’s possible to use exhaust gases straight from factories, but then you need to remove substances like sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide, which are also present in these flue gases. If the levels of these substances are too high, they will inhibit the growth of the algae. There are technical solutions to this problem, however. The next question is: how far away can the algae factory be from the CO2 source? If this distance is too great, then the CO2 will have to be transported in another, controlled form, such as bicarbonate. Another option is to develop CO2 air-capture units that enable local extra CO2 to be extracted from the air. The University of Twente is working on this technology in another Interreg algae growth project, known as IDEA and currently running in North West Europe. The Radius research group at Thomas More UAS is also involved in this project. In technological terms, we know it’s possible, but the crucial point is how much the technology will cost.
• Read the complete application story ‘Controlled CO2 supply for algae growth’;
• More information about Thomas More UAS;
• More information about the ‘Enop’ project for energy storage using CO2 conversion technologies;
• More information about the ‘IDEA’ project for implementation and development of economically viable algae-based value chains.
Jornt Spit was interviewed by Eddy Brinkman to produce this blog (Betase/Bronkhorst)
Today I would like to share an application story with you using mass flow meters in an application at Umicore in Suzhou (China).
Umicore is one of the world’s leading producers of catalysts used in automotive emission systems. The company develops and manufactures high performing catalysts for, among other things, gasoline and diesel engines to transform pollutants into harmless gases, resulting in cleaner air.
Umicore’s production location in Suzhou ‘Umicore Technical Materials’ is using Bronkhorst Mass Flow Controllers and Vapour Systems for research and testing of automotive emission catalyst materials. Newly developed catalytically active materials of Umicore consist of oxides and precious metals, such as platinum and palladium, incorporated into a porous structure which allows intimate contact with the exhaust gas.
What catalyst materials does Umicore test?
Umicore in Suzhou uses various test benches in which newly developed catalytic materials are tested on performance (read: low output of toxic emissions). “Umicore develops new catalysts directly with top-tier automobile manufacturers in China. We are testing new formulations of materials and shapes of the catalysts on performance” explains Mr. Yang Jinliang.
How are the mass flow meters and controllers applied for identical testing and simulation?
The Bronkhorst mass flow meters and controllers are used to accurately deliver the right amount of several gases in a mixture that simulates the exhaust of an engine in different circumstances. “To really compare the performance of newly developed formulations, we have to be sure that the operational conditions of our tests are identical.” Mr. Yang explains that this requires the use of high performance mass flow controllers to accurately mix the simulated exhaust gas.
“We need flow control equipment which is reliable and has excellent repeatability during our simulation runs. Therefore Umicore developed the test equipment together with the Bronkhorst flow specialists.” Umicore runs various simulations. “We simulate exhaust gases of engines under various life cycle simulations and operating conditions. For example, the exhaust gas of the car is different if the engine is still cold or if the engine has a high number of revolutions.”
Test bench for ageing simulation
One special test bench of Umicore simulates the ageing of the catalyst materials. This has been achieved by heating the ambient temperature of the Catalyst up to 800° Celsius for a couple of hours up to 24 hours in a test run while adding the simulated exhaust gas. “Here the Bronkhorst instruments prove high stability under the harsh testing conditions,” says Mr. Yang.
Exhaust gas simulation recipe
In order to simulate engine exhaust gas, Umicore mixes multiple gases. In general the following reactions take place in the catalytic converter:
1.Reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and oxygen: 2NOx → xO2 + N2
2.Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide: 2CO + O2 → 2CO2
3.Oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) to carbon dioxide and water: CxH2x+2 + [(3x+1)/2]O2 → xCO2 + (x+1)H2O.
To mix these gases, EL-FLOW Select digital mass flow controllers are being used. In order to maintain the gas mix under the same pressure, an EL-PRESS pressure controller instrument is used to control the pressure simultaneously with the flow.
Exhaust gases of engines also contain evaporated H2O. For this purpose the Bronkhorst ‘Controlled Evaporation Mixer’ (CEM) is used. All digital mass flow controllers, pressure controller and the CEM are connected with a computer that runs a software program to control the instruments.
In the ageing simulation test-bench of Umicore, high-temperature mass flow controllers of Bronkhorst are applied. The Bronkhorst EL-FLOW Select controllers have remote electronics to resist gas temperatures as high as 110° Celsius and still control the gases with high accuracy and excellentrepeatability.
How do you like the support of Bronkhorst products in China?
When asked about Bronkhorst support and service in China, Mr. Yang is very enthusiastic: “All Bronkhorst experts in China are very professional and have quick response. Especially during the start-up phase of our project, when we needed it most, my contacts were determined to support us. The system runs smoothly, but it’s comfortable to know that Bronkhorst is having one of its Global Service Offices in Shanghai if we need calibration or service.”
• Learn more about another application in this market: Simulation of exhaust gas to test lambda probes.
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The temperatures are sky high! All winter you've thought about going camping, travelling with your caravan and planning precious family trips. Finally now it’s the time to leave everything behind, and for a moment, forget the busy daily live and struggling at home. However, everywhere you go, Bronkhorst is travelling with you. Bronkhorst plays a role in many more applications than you think, also when you go camping. Let me guide you through some mainstream products you often see at a camping site, and the involvement of mass flow controllers.
If you are travelling to your holiday destination by car, you will constantly look at some Bronkhorst solutions. Let’s start with the dashboard of your car. Many cars have a leather dashboard; at least, it looks like leather. A major company manufactures ‘skin’ that covers a car's dashboard, to give it this ‘leather look’. The skin is produced by spraying liquid, coloured polyurethane into a nickel mould. A Coriolis mass flow controller combined with a valve forms the basis of this solution to accurately supply external release agent to the nickel mould surface.
But also the foam within the dashboard is manufactured by using Bronkhorst products. To create foam, a gas is added to a mixture, containing acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) or polyvinyl chloride (PVC), to give it the right volume. Too much gas will make the foam unstable, too little and you’ll get a heavy solid block. Therefore, it is utterly important that the correct amount of gas is added with an accurate gas flow controller.
If you look beyond your dashboard, you’ll look through the front window of your car. To control the light transmittance of glass, but also to make glass water repellent, protect it from mechanical and chemical stress, increase the scratch resistance and shatter protection, thermal mass flow controllers are used for the coating process. By controlling individually process gas flows, film thickness uniformity improvements are achieved.
Coating on headlights
When polycarbonate was introduced as a replacement for headlights glass in the early 1980s, new problems arised. Headlights are subject to a harsh environment. Due to the position in the front of a car, critical parameters for lifetime and performance are weather ability, scratches and abrasion. To protect headlights from these factors, scratch and abrasion coatings have been developed that are sprayed on the headlights with the help of robots in which Coriolis mass flow controllers control the flow to the spraying nozzles.
However, surface treatment is not only applicable for glass and dashboards. If you have experience with camping, you will be familiar with how fierce the summer weather sometimes can be. The awning of your caravan needs to be water repellent - this also applies to your raincoat - to sustain the heavy rainfall now and then. To make fabrics and textiles hydrophobic, Empa - a research institute of the ETH Domain, applies plasma polymerisation to deposit thin, nanoscale layers on top of fabrics and fibers. For this, they are using a Controlled Evaporation and Mixing system, in short a CEM system. In one of our previous blogs ‘Hydrophobic coating, the answer to exercising in the rain’ you can read about this application.
Mass flow controllers are used to make awnings hydrophobic
Bronkhorst is also involved with many smaller attributes you will encounter on a campingsite. Most people still enjoy the comfort of gas for heating or cooking on the stove. But also with gas we are able to fire up the barbecue in no time at all, in comparison with the old-fashioned briquettes that are sometimes hard to ignite. When gas escapes from a pressurized cylinder, you’ll recognize this from its penetrating scent. However, like Sandra Wassink stated in her blog “How mass flow controllers make our gas smell”, natural gas is odorless. By controlled supply of odorants like Tetrahydrothiophene (THT) or Mecaptan with a mass flow controller, the scent is added to the natural gas on purpose.
Let’s stay with the topic scent for a moment. For when we want to decrease the amount of mosquitos in our surroundings, we often enlight a citronella candle when we are getting tired of using the flyswatter. With the CORI-FILL dosing technology, Bronkhorst offers an easy-to-use setup to dose fragrances, like citronella, in candles. The addition of fragrance to a candle should be carefully monitored to ensure the candle burns cleanly and safely. To read in more detail about the production of scented candles, please read the blog of Graham Todd.
However a candle can bring much light to your surroundings, you won’t take a candle with you when you haste to the camping toilets at night. Instead you will use a flashlight of course. The working principle of the LED (Light Emitting Diode) inside this flashlight is a technology where Bronkhorst plays its part. LED works via the phenomenon called electroluminescence, which is the emission of light from a semiconductor (diode) under the influence of an electric field. By applying a semiconducting material like Gallium arsenide phosphide for instance, the manufacturing of red, orange and yellow light emitting diodes is possible.
I already told you so much, but frankly, just a tiny bit of all the camping applications we are involved at. Hopefully you got some more insights on the importance of Bronkhorst in many industries, also when you go camping.
If you want more information concerning the discussed applications, please contact us.
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